唐纳-瑞德大队

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唐纳-瑞德大队(Donner-Reed Party),指的是一群在1846年春季由美国东部出发,预计前往加州的移民队伍,他们是由数个家庭组成的篷车大队。由于错误的资讯,他们的旅程遭受延迟,导致他们在1846年末到1847年初之间受困在内华达山区度过寒冬。在恶劣的环境下,接近半数成员遭到冻死或者饿死,部分生存者依靠食人存活下来。[1] 
中文名
唐纳-瑞德大队
外文名
Donner-Reed Party
提出者
移民
提出时间
1846年

唐纳-瑞德大队唐纳-瑞德大队的故事

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唐纳-瑞德大队唐纳-瑞德大队的由来:

唐纳-瑞德大队(Donner-Reed Party),指的是一群在1846年春季由美国东部出发,预计前往加州的移民队伍,他们是由数个家庭组成的篷车大队。由于错误的资讯,他们的旅程遭受延迟,导致他们在1846年末到1847年初之间受困在内华达山区度过寒冬。在恶劣的环境下,接近半数成员遭到冻死或者饿死,部分生存者依靠食人存活下来。[1] 

唐纳-瑞德大队唐纳-瑞德大队惨剧:

“唐纳之队”是西进运动中最惨烈的悲剧。一队移民误听了黑斯廷斯的指示,想要走捷径结果反而浪费了宝贵的18天时间,以至于在最后穿越内华达山脉之时,被大雪困于深山,最后依靠互相蚕食而勉强活下来,89人的队伍只剩下45人。
In the spring of 1846, a group of nearly 90 emigrants left Springfield, Illinois, and headed west. Led by brothers Jacob and George Donner, the group attempted to take a new and supposedly shorter route to California. They soon encountered rough terrain and numerous delays, and they eventually became trapped by heavy snowfall high in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Reduced to cannibalism to survive through the winter, only half of the original group reached California the following year. Their story quickly spread, and before long the term "Donner Party" became synonymous with one of humanity's most ingrained taboos.

唐纳-瑞德大队唐纳-瑞德大队之谈虎色变

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1846年春天,一队大约90人的移民队伍离开了伊利诺伊州的斯普林菲尔德,向西进发。这支队伍由雅各布和乔治·唐纳兄弟两人带队,计划走一条据说更近的新路前往加利福尼亚。结果他们遇到的是崎岖的地形,行程不断拖延,最终被一场大雪困在内华达山中。为了度过这个寒冬,他们只能互相蚕食,最终只剩下一半成员在第二年抵达加利福尼亚。他们的故事很快就传开了,不久之后,“唐纳之队”便成了人人谈虎色变的禁忌。
The Donner party left Springfield, Illinois, in April 1846. Led by two wealthy brothers, Jacob and George Donner, the emigrants initially followed the regular California Trail westward to Fort Bridger, Wyoming. From there, however, the emigrants decided to leave the established trail and take a new and supposedly shorter route to California laid out by a unscrupulous trail guide named Lansford Hastings. Hastings was not at Fort Bridger at the time-he was leading an earlier wagon train along his new route. He left word for the Donner party to follow, promising that he would mark the trail for them.
唐纳之队在1846年4月离开伊利诺伊的斯普林菲尔德。由富有的雅各布和乔治·唐纳兄弟两人带队,他们一开始走的是常规路线,直到怀俄明的布利哲堡。从那里开始,他们听信一个不负责任的名叫兰斯福德·黑斯廷斯的路线向导的说法,决定跟着他走另外一条近路。黑斯廷斯本人当时并不在布利哲堡,而是领着一列马车队沿着他的新路线走在前面。他留下话让唐纳之队跟着走,承诺会沿路标记路线。
Reassured, the group of 89 emigrants left Fort Bridger with their 20 wagons and headed for Weber Canyon, where Hastings claimed there was an easy passage through the rugged Wasatch Mountains.When they reached the head of the canyon,they founda note from Hastings attached to a forked stick. Hastings warned the Donner party that the route ahead was more difficult than he had thought. He asked the emigrants to make camp there and wait until he could return to show them a better way.
他们打消了疑虑,赶着20辆马车离开了布利哲堡,直奔韦伯峡谷,也就是黑斯廷斯声称那里会有一条好走的小路,可以翻越崎岖的瓦扎茨山。当他们到达峡谷顶端时,发现黑斯廷斯在一个有叉的棒子上留了张字条。黑斯廷斯提醒他们,前面的路比他所预想的要难走得多,他让他们在这里扎营,然后等着他回来指点一条更好走的路。
Hastings' note troubled the emigrants. To return to Fort Bridger to pick up the established route would have meant wasting several days. They decided to wait for Hastings. After eight days, when Hastings had still not arrived, the emigrants sent a messenger up the canyon to find the guide. The messenger returned several days later with instructions from Hastings to follow another trail, and the emigrants complied. The alternate route, however, turned out to be even worse than the Weber Canyon road, and the emigrants had to carve a fresh road through thick trees and boulder-strewn ground.
黑斯廷斯的字条令他们十分困扰。要回去走常规路线,意味着浪费了好几天。他们决定留下来等黑斯廷斯。等了8天以后,黑斯廷斯还没有回来,移民们派了个传信人上峡谷去找这个向导。几天后,传信人带回了黑斯廷斯的指示——走另一条路,移民们照办了。然而这条路比先前的韦伯峡谷更加难走,移民们不得不从厚密的丛林和乱石地中生生开辟出一条新路来。
The Donner party finally made it through the Wasatch Mountains and arrived at the Great Salt Lake. Hastings' route had cost them 18 valuable days. Unfortunately, their difficulties were only beginning. The "short cut" to California had cost them many wasted days, and the Donner party crossed the Sierra Nevada Mountains late in the season. On October 28, a heavy snowfall blocked the high mountain passes, trapping the emigrants in a frozen wilderness. Eventually reduced to cannibalism to survive, only 45 of the original 89 emigrants reached California the following year.
唐纳之队最终穿越了瓦扎茨山脉,到达了大盐湖。黑斯廷斯这条路耗费了他们宝贵的18天时间。不幸的是,困难刚刚开始。这条所谓的通往加利福尼亚的近路浪费了他们很多天的时间,以至于他们翻越内华达山脉的时间被拖到了季末。10月28日,一场大雪阻住了山路,把移民们困在了严寒的荒野。最终他们只好互相蚕食以求苟活,89人的移民队伍最终只剩下45人,于次年抵达加利福尼亚。
参考资料
  • 1.    .维基百科[引用日期2014-02-16]